Long-Term Cement Studies (LCS) - References

Alexander W. R., A. Gautschi and P. Zuidema (1998) Thorough testing of performance assessment models: the necessary integration of in situ experiments, natural analogues and laboratory work. Extended abstract in Sci. Basis Nucl. Waste Manag. XXI, 1013-1014.
Blaser P., I. Blechschmidt, S. Fenner, M. Herwegh, J. Skrzyppek (2006): GTS Phase Vl - LCS Status Report on site characterisation and field data review of the BK area 2004-2006. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 06-17. Nagra, Wettingen.
Blechschmidt I., Vomvoris S., Rueedi J., Martin A.J. (2008): Grimsel Test Site - Phase VI: Review of accomplishments and next generation of in-situ experiments under repository relevant boundary conditions.- Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XXXI: Symposium held September 16-21, 2007, Sheffield, UK. MRS symposium proceedings vol. 1107, 547-555.

Gaus, I., Rueedi, J., Blaser P. (eds.) (2010): LCS - comparative modelling of cement experiments. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 10-07. Nagra, Wettingen.

Hooper A., J. Mathieson, M. Shiotsuki and W.R. Alexander (2005): Review of international progress in transuranic and long-lived ILW disposal. ICEM-05 Conference (Glasgow, UK, Sept. 2005)
Källvenius G.; Ekberg C. (2003): TACK - a program coupling chemical kinetics with a two-dimensional transport model in geochemical systems.- Computers & Geosciences 29, 511-521.
Kilchenmann R., Ruethi M., Mäder U., Eikenberg J. (2005): Grimsel Test Site HPF Project: Gamma spectrometry of granitic shear-zone samples infiltrated by Cs-Co-Eu radionuclide tracers under hyperalkaline conditions. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 05-09. Nagra, Wettingen.
Krüger Y., Mäder U. (2005): GTS Phase V HPF: Spektrometrische Untersuchung (Raman) von CSH-Phasen aus dem in-situ hoch pH-Experiment (HPF) im Felslabor Grimsel. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 05-17. Nagra, Wettingen.

Mäder U. K. and B. Frieg (2003) Long-Term Cement Studies (LCS) Extended Minutes of the 1st Planning Meeting Paris (ANDRA), July 3-4, 2003. Nagra internal memo, AN 03-139, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.

Mäder U. K., T. Fierz, J. Eikenberg, M. Ruethi, S. Ekberg, P. Stille and A.E. Milodowski (2005) The effects of a high-pH plume on flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rock: field and laboratory experiments. J. Geochem. Explor.
Mäder U.; Frieg B. (2005): Long-term field experiment to investigate the effects of a hyperalkaline plume in fractured rock: Changes in mineralogy, permeability and radionuclide transport (HPF, Grimsel Test Site).- International workshop: Mechanisms and modelling of waste/cement interactions. May 8-12, 2005, Meiringen Switzerland, EMPA, 52.
Mäder U.K., Ekberg Ch. (2006): GTS HPF Project: Geochemical evolution of porewater in the granitic shear zone AU-126 during 3 years of interaction with a hyperalkaline fluid, and its interpretation. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 06-08. Nagra, Wettingen.
Milodowski A.E., te Kemp S.J., Hodginson E. (2007): Grimsel Test Site: HPF Project: Mineralogical characteristics of hyperalkaline porewater - rock interaction in Shear Zone AU-126. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 07-03. Nagra, Wettingen.
Möri A., Indernbitzin L., Heugel T., Mäder U. (2005): GTS HPF: Over-coring, sampling, sample preparation, UV/VIS- photography, ß/ [gamma]- autoradiography and structural-geological model of the shear zone AU-126 and the dipole flow field. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 05-18. Nagra, Wettingen.
Pfingsten W., Paris B.; Soler J.M.; Mäder U.K. (2006): Tracer and reactive transport modelling of the interaction between high-pH fluid and fractured rock: Field and laboratory experiments.- Special issue of Journal of Geochemical Exploration: Geochemistry for the safe isolation of hazardous wastes, Nice, 06-11 April 2003 90 / 1-2, 95-113.
Rueedi, J. (2010): LCS setup of field experiments. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 10-05. Nagra, Wettingen.

Rueedi J., Maeder U., Jacobs F. (2009): Long-term cement study (LCS) at Grimsel Test Site: Scoping for in-situ experiments [Abstract + Poster].- The Fred Glasser Cement Science Symposium Aberdeen, 17th - 19th June, 2009, 65. University of Aberdeen.

Savage, D. (2011): A review of analogues of alkaline alteration with regard to long-term barrier performance. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 2401-2418.

Savage, D., Soler, J.M., Yamaguchi, K., Walker, C., Honda, A., Inagaki, M., Watson, C., Wilson, J., Benbow, S., Gaus, R., Rueedi, J. (2011): A comparative study of the modelling of cement hydration and cement-rock laboratory experiments. Applied Geochemistry, 26, 1138-1152.

Smellie J. A. T., (Ed.), (1998). Maqarin Natural Analogue Study: Phase III. SKB Technical Report 99-04. SKB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Soler J., W. Pfingsten, B. Paris & U. K. Mäder. (2005a) Tracer transport and reactive transport modelling of high-pH fluid interaction in fractured rock observed in field and laboratory experiments. J. Geochem. Explor.

Soler J. et al (2005b) GTS-HPF: Modelling of hyperalkaline leachate/host rock interaction - laboratory and field data Nagra Technical Report NTB 05-01, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.
Soler J. (2007):Thermodynamic Description of the Solubility of C-S-H Gels in Hydrated Portland Cement - Literature Review. Posiva working report 2007-88.
Soler J.M. (2000): One-dimensional reactive transport modelling of the interaction between a high-pH plume and a fractured granodiorite. The GTS-HPF Project.- Goldschmidt 2000, September 3rd-8th, Oxford, UK. Journal of Conference Abstracts 5 / 2, 947.
Soler J.M. (2009): Cement degradation and host rock alteration in nuclear waste disposal. Studies at the Grimsel Test Site. Abstract.- Awards ceremony speeches and abstracts of the19th Annual V.M. Goldschmidt conference Davos, Switzerland, June 2009. Special Supplement Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73 / 13S, A1247.
Soler J.M.; Mäder U.K. (2007): Mineralogical alteration and associated permeability changes induced by a high-pH plume: Modeling of a granite core infiltration experiment.- Applied Geochemistry 22 / 1, 17-29.
Soler J.M.; Paris B.; Pfingsten W.; Mäder U. (2004): Flow and reactive transport modeling in the framework of GTS-HPF.- Water Rock Interaction WRI-11, Saratoga Springs, NY, 4.

Steefel C. and P. Lichtner (1998). Multi-component reactive transport in discrete fractures II: infiltration of hyperalkaline groundwater at Maqarin, Jordan, a natural analogue site. J. Hydrol., 209, 200-224.
Ursula Sievänen U., Raivio P., Vuorinen U., Hansen J., Norokallio J., Syrjänen P. (2006): Optimisation of Technical Properties of Low pH Cementitious Injection Grout Laboratory Tests and Pilot Field Test 3. Posiva working report 2006-85.
Vuorinen U., Lehikoinen J., Imoto H., Yamamoto T., Cruz Alonso M. (2005): Injection Grout for Deep Repositories - Subproject 1: Low-pH Cementitious Grout for Larger Fractures, Leach Testing of Grout Mixes and Evaluation of the Long-Term Safety. Posiva working report 2004-46.

Natural Analogues: References

Alexander, W.R. (Ed.). 1992. A natural analogue study of cement-buffered hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a sedimentary host rock - I: Source-term description and geochemical code database validation. NAGRA Technical Report Series (NTB 91-10), Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.

Alexander, W.R. and Mazurek, M. (1996). The Maqarin natural analogue: possible implications for the performance of a cementitious repository at Wellenberg. Nagra Unpublished Internal Report, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.

Alexander W. R., G.Kamei, J.A.T.Smellie (2005) A natural analogue of a cementitious repository: a brief overview of a study of unique sites in Jordan. Proc. IAEA Conf. Waste Manag., 2-6 October, 2005, Tokyo, Japan. IAEA Technical Report, 304, IAEA, Vienna, Austria.
Khoury H.N.; Salameh E.; Mazurek M.; Alexander W.R. (1998): Geology and Hydrogeology of the Maqarin Area. Chapter 2.- Maqarin natural analogue study: Phase III: Volume I and II., Smellie J.A.T. (ed.), Technical Report TR 98-04, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management (SKB), Stockholm, 39-70.

Linklater, C.M. (Ed.), 1998. A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock II. Nirex Report no. S/98/003, UKNirex, Harwell, Oxon., UK.
Milodowski A.E.; Khoury H.N.; Mäder U. [et al.] (2001): Mineralogical alteration by hyperalkaline groundwater in northern Jordan.- Water-Rock Interaction: Proceedings of the tenth international symposium on water-rock interaction WRI-10, Villasimius, Italy 10-15 July 2001 / Ed. R.Cidu, Lisse [et al], 1347-1350.
Saines M.; Dickson P.; Lambert P. (1980): An occurrence of calcium hydroxide ground water in Jordan.- Groundwater 18 / 5, 503.

Savage D. (1996): Zeolite occurrence, stability and behaviour : a contribution to phase 3 of the Jordan Natural Analogue Project. IG 3779-1 Version 2. Intera Information Technologies, Leicestershire.
Savage D. (1998): Zeolite occurrence, stability and behaviour. Chapter 8.- Maqarin natural analogue study: Phase III: Volume I and II., Smellie J.A.T. (ed.), Technical Report TR 98-04, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management (SKB), Stockholm, 281-306.

Savage, D., Rueedi, J., Gaus, I. (2010): The use of natural systems data in modelling cement-rock interactions.- Nuclear waste management : Research challenges for the future. Cambridge, 28-29 September 2010.

Shao, H., Kosakowski, G., Berner, U., Kulik, D. A., Maeder, U. and Kolditz, O (2013): Reactive transport modeling of the clogging process at Marqarin natural analogue site. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, in-press. 

Smellie, J.A.T. (Ed.), 1998. Maqarin natural analogue project: Phase III. SKB Technical Report (TR 98-04, Vols I and II), SKB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Smellie J.A.T. (ed.) (2000): Maqarin natural analogue project : Phase IV : Reconnaissance mission report (April 28th to May 7th, 1999). SKB Report R-00-34. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management, Stockholm.

Further Reading

The material cited above, while open, has a somewhat restricted circulation. Interested readers may also find further information on the project in:

Alexander, W.R. (1995) Natural cements: How can they help us safely dispose of radioactive waste? Radwaste Magazine 2, vol 5, Sept. 1995, pp 61-69.

Alexander, W.R., Dayal, R., Eagleson, K., Eikenberg, J., Hamilton, E., Linklater, C.M, McKinley, I.G. and Tweed, C.J. (1992) A natural analogue of high pH cement pore waters from the Maqarin area of northern Jordan II: results of predictive geochemical calculations. J. Geochem. Explor. 46, pp l33-146.

Barnes, I., Presser, T.S, Saines, M., Dickson, P. and Koster van Groos, A.F. (1982) Geochemistry of highly basic calcium hydroxide groundwater in Jordan. Chem. Geol. 35, pp147-154.

Chambers, A.V. (1994) Use of the quasi-stationary state approximation to determine the migration of mineral alteration zones at a natural analogue for the disturbed zone of a cementitious radioactive waste repository. Sci. Basis Nucl. Waste Manag. XVIII, pp 639-644

Clark, I.D., Dayal, R. and Khoury, H.N. (1994) The Maqarin (Jordan) natural analogue for 14-C attenuation in cementitious barriers. Waste Manag. 14, pp 467-477.

Kattan, Z. (1995) Chemical and environmental isotope study of the fissured basaltic aquifer systems of Yarmouk Basin (Syria).IAEA-SM/336/28, IAEA Int. Symp. Isot. Wat. Res. Manag. (Vienna, March 20-24, 1995).Khoury, H.N. and Nassir, S. (1982) High temperature mineralisation in the Maqarin area, north Jordan. Neues Jahrb. Miner. Abh. 144, pp 197-213.

Khoury, H.N., Salameh, E. and Abdul-Jaber, Q. (1985) Characteristics of an unusual highly alkaline water from the Maqarin area, Northern Jordan. J. Hydrol. 81, pp 79-91.

Khoury, H.N., E.Salameh, I.D.Clark, P.Fritz, W.Bajjali, A.E.Milodowski, M.R.Cave and W.R.Alexander (1992) A natural analogue of high pH coment pore waters from the Maqarin area of northern Jordan I: introduction to the site. J. Geochem. Explor. 46, pp ll7-132.

Linklater, C.M., Y.Albinsson, W.R.Alexander, I.Casas, I.G.McKinley and P.Sellin (1996) A natural analogue of high pH cement pore waters from the Maqarin area of northern Jordan: comparison of predicted and observed trace element chemistry of uranium and selenium. J.Contam. Hydrol. 21, pp 59-69.

McKinley, I.G. and Alexander, W.R., (1992) A review of the use of natural analogues to test performance assessment models of a cementitious near field. Waste Manag. 12, pp 253-259.
Saines, M., Dickson, P and Lambert, P. (1980) An occurrence of calcium hydroxide groundwater in Jordan. Groundwater 18, p 503.

Smellie, J.A.T., Karlsson, F. and Alexander, W.R., (1997) Natural analogue studies: present status and performance assessment implications. J.Contam. Hydrol. 26, pp 3-18.

Tweed, C.J and Milodowski, A..E (1994) An overview of the Maqarin natural analogue project - a natural analogue study of a hyperalkaline cement groundwater system. in H.von Maravic and J.A.T.Smellie (editors), 5th NAWG Workshop, Toledo, Spain, 5-9 October, 1992, CEC EUR 15176 EN, Brussels, Belgium.

West, J.M., Coombs, P., Gardner, S.J. and Rochelle, C.A. (1995) The microbiology of the Maqarin site, Jordan. A natural analogue for cementitious radioactive waste repositories. Sci. Basis Nucl. Waste Manag. XVIII, pp 181-189.


Long-Term Cement Studies (LCS) Experiment

The GTS underground facilities are also available to interested 3rd parties for underground testing and research. The GTS offers cost-effective access to a fully developed, well characterised underground research facility with round the year logistical support - please contact Dr. Ingo Blechschmidt, Head of the Grimsel Test Site, for further details.