Long Term Diffusion (LTD) - References

Abelin H., Birgersson L., Widén H. and Ågren T. (1990): Channelling experiment. Stripa Project Technical Report 90-13, SKB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Alexander W.R., Scott R.D., MacKenzie A.B. and McKinley I.G. (1988): A natural analogue study of radionuclide migration in a water conducting fracture in crystalline rock. Radiochim. Acta 44/45, 283-298.

Alexander W.R., McKinley I.G., MacKenzie A.B. and Scott R.D. (1990): Verification of matrix diffusion in granite by means of natural decay series disequilibria. Sci. Basis Nucl. Waste Manag. XIII, 567-576.

Alexander W.R., Smith P.A. and McKinley I.G (2003): Modelling radionuclide transport in the geological environment: a case study from the field of radioactive waste disposal. Ch.5 in E.M.Scott (ed), Modelling Radioactivity in the Environment, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Bradbury M.H. and Green A. (1986a): Retardation of Radionuclide Transport by Fracture Flow in Granite and Argillaceous Rocks, Nuclear Science and Technology Report EUR 10619, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels

Bradbury M.H. and Green A. (1986b): Investigations into the factors Influencing Long Range Matrix Diffusion Rates and Pore Space Accessibility at Depth in Granite. J. Hydrol 89, 123-139

Bradbury M.H. and Stephen I.G. (1986): Diffusion and permeability based sorption measurements in intact rock samples. Sci. Basis Nucl. Waste Manag. IX, 81-90

Crawford J., Moreno L. and Neretneiks, I. (2003): Determination of the flow-wetted surface in fractured media. J.Contam.Hydrol. 61, 361-369

Elert, M. (1997): Retention mechanisms and the flow-wetted surface - implications for safety analysis SKB Technical Report 97-01, SKB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Frieg B., Alexander W.R., Dollinger H., Bühler C., Haag P., Möri A. and Ota K. (1998): In situ impregnation for investigating radionuclide retardation in fractured repository host rocks. J.Contam.Hydrol. 35, 115-130

Garrels R.M., Dreyer R.M. and Howland A.L. (1949): Diffusion of ions through intergranular spaces in water saturated rocks. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 60, 1809-1924

Grisak G.E. and Pickens J.F. (1980): Solute transport through fractured media. Part I: the effect of matrix diffusion. Water Resour. Res. 16, 719-730

Hadermann J. and Rösel F. (1985): Radionuclide chain transport in homogeneous crystalline rocks: limited matrix diffusion and effective surface sorption. Nagra Technical Report Series, NTB 85-40, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.

Haggerty R., McKenna S.A. and Meigs, L.C. (2000): On the late time behaviour of tracer test breakthrough curve. Water Resour. Res. 36 (12), 3467-3479.

Hellmuth K.-H., Siitari-Kauppi M. and Lingberg A. (1992): Applications of the 14C-Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) impregnation method in studies on porosity and matrix diffusion. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 257, 649-656.

Hofmann, B.A. (1990): Reduction spheres in haematitic rocks from northern Switzerland: implications for the mobility of some rare elements. Nagra Technical Report NTB 89-17, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.

Hussain, N. (1991): Radon modelling and the heat transfer surface area of the British hot dry rock geothermal reservoir. Ind.Acad.Sci.Earth Planet. Sci. 100, 1-11.

Ikonen J., Sardini P., Jokelainen L., Siitari-Kauppi M., Martin A. and Eikenberg J. (2016): The tritiated water and iodine migration in-situ in Grimsel granodiorite. Part I: determination of the diffusion profiles. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. DOI 10.1007/s10967 016 4890 6.

Ittner T., Torstenfelt B. and Allard B. (1988): Diffusion of Np, Pu and Am in granitic rock, Radiochim. Acta, 44/45, 171-177.

JNC (1999): Final report of the Kamaishi in situ experiments. JNC Technical Report JNC TN7410 99-001, JNC, Tokai, Japan.

Jokelainen L., Meski T., Lindberg A., Soler J.M., Siitari-Kauppi M., Martin A.J. and Eikenberg J. (2013): The determination of Cs-134 and Na-22 diffusion profiles in granodiorite using gamma spectroscopy. J. Radioanal. Nuc. Chem., 295, 2153 - 2191. DOI 10.1007/s10967-012-2268-7.

Kelokaski M., Siitari-Kauppi M., Kauppi I., Hellmuth K.-H., Möri A., Biggin C., Kickmaier W., Inderbitzin L. and Martin A. J. (2010): Characterisation of pore space geometry by 14C-MMA impregnation. Nagra Technical Report Series, NTB 05-03, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.

Klinkenberg L.J. (1951): Analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. Vol. 62, 559-660.

Lanyon G. W., Rueedi, J. and Martin A.J. (2012): LTD Monopole 2: Conceptual and scoping models of groundwater flow. Nagra NAB 12-12.

Löfgren M. (2001): Formation factor logging in igneous rock by electrical methods. Licentiate thesis at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 91-7283-207-x.

Martin A.J. and Blechschmidt I. (2009): Studies on radionuclide transport behaviour - The next generation of in-situ experiments at the Grimsel Test Site. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1193.

Martin A.J., Siitari-Kauppi M., Havlova V., Tachi Y. and Miksova J. (2013): An overview of the long-term diffusion test, Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland. Migration 2013, Brighton, UK, September 2013.

McKinley I.G. (1989): Applying natural analogues in predictive performance assessment: 1. Principles and requirements, 2. Examples and discussions. In: Risks analysis in nuclear waste management, Klewer, Academic, Publ., Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Mazurek M., Alexander W.R. and MacKenzie A.B. (1996): Contaminant retardation in fractured shales: matrix diffusion and redox front entrapment. J.Contam. Hydrol. 21, 71-84.

Miller W.M., Alexander W.R., Chapman N.A., McKinley I.G., and Smellie J.A.T. (2000): Geological disposal of radioactive wastes and natural analogues. Waste management series, vol. 2, Pergamon, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Möri A., Schild M., Siegesmund S., Vollbrecht A., Adler M., Mazurek M., Ota K., Haag P., Ando T. and Alexander W.R. (2003a): The Nagra-JNC in situ study of safety relevant radionuclide retardation in fractured crystalline rock IV: The in situ study of matrix porosity in the vicinity of a water-conducting fracture. Nagra Technical Report NTB 00-08, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.

Möri A., Alexander W.R., Ota K. and Frieg B (2003b). Eds: The Nagra-JNC in situ study of safety relevant radionuclide retardation in fractured crystalline rock III: the RRP project final report. Nagra Technical Report NTB 00-07 (in prep), Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.

Muuri E. (2015): The sorption and diffusion of Ba-133 in granitic rocks. Master's Thesis. Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Neretnieks I. (1980): Diffusion in the rock matrix: an important factor in radionuclide migration? J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4379-4397

Ota K., Moeri A., Alexander W., Frieg B. and Schild M. (2003): Influence of the mode of matrix porosity determination on matrix diffusion calculations. J. Contam. Hydrol. 61, 131-145

Rasmuson A. and Neretnieks I. (1981): Migration of radionuclides in fissured rock: the influence of micropore diffusion and longditudinal dispersion. J. Geophhys. Res. 86, 3749

Sardini P., Delay F., Hellmuth K-H., Porel G. and Oila, E. (2003): Interpretation of out-diffusion experiments on crystalline rock using random walk modelling. J. Contam. Hydrol. 61, 339-350.

Skagius K. (1986): Diffusion of dissolved species in the matrix of some Swedish crystalline rocks. PhD Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Stockholm

Skagius K. and Neretnieks I. (1982): Diffusion in crystalline rocks of some sorbing and non-sorbing species. SKBF/KBS Technical Report 82-12, SKB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Skagius K. and Neretnieks I. (1986): Diffusivity measurements and electrical resistivity measurements in rock samples under mechanical stress. Water Resources Research 22/4, 570-580

Smellie J.A.T. (2000): Aspö Hard Rock Laboratory: status report of the Matrix Fluid Experiment, June 1998-June 2000. Äspö Internal Progress Report IPR-00-35. SKB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Smith P.A., Alexander W.R., Heer W., Fierz T., Meier P.M., Baeyens B., Bradbury M.H., Mazurek M. andMcKinley I.G. (2001): The Nagra-JNC in situ study of safety relevant radionuclide retardation in fractured crystalline rock I: The radionuclide migration experiment-overview of investigations 1990-1996. Nagra Technical Report Series NTB 00-09, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.

Torstenfelt B., Ittner T., Allard B., Andersson K. and Olofsson U. (1982): Mobilities of radionuclides in fresh and fractures crystalline rock. SKB Technical Report, TR 82-26, SKB, Stockholm, Sweden

Valkiainen M. (1992): Diffusion in the rock matrix-A review of laboratory tests and field studies. YJT (Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies). Report 92-04, Helsinki, Finland

Wildenschild D., Hopmans J.W., Vaz C.M.P., Rivers M.L., Rikard D. and Christensen B.S.B. (2002): Using X-ray computed tomography in hydrology: systems, resolutions and limitations. Journal of Hydrology 267, 285-297.

 

Long Term Diffusion project (LTD) Experiment Diffusion - Long Term Diffusion project (LTD)

The GTS underground facilities are also available to interested 3rd parties for underground testing and research. The GTS offers cost-effective access to a fully developed, well characterised underground research facility with round the year logistical support - please contact Dr. Ingo Blechschmidt, Head of the Grimsel Test Site, for further details.